Minggu, 05 April 2009

THE DEFINITION AND BRANCHES OF LINGUISTIC

The Definition of Linguistic
Linguistic is a science making language as scientific study. Ronald W. Langacker (1973:5) stated that linguistic is the study of human language. Stork and Widdowson (1985:15) gave explanation that Linguistic is the study of language. Moreover A.S Hornby, E.V Gatenby H Wakefield explained that linguistic is the language and languages. And John Lyons (1975:1) said that linguistic is may be defined as scientific study language. Based on Dictionary linguistic is the study of language.
The Branches of linguistic
1. General linguistic generally describes the concepts and categories of a particular language or among all language. It also provides analyzed theory of the language.
Descriptive linguistic describes or gives the data to confirm or refute the theory of particular language explained generally.
2. Historical linguistic divide into:
Synchronic description is a description about language in particular period in time.
Diachronic description is a description about a change or changes that took place over a period of time, sometimes over centuries.
3. Theoretical linguistics is the branch of linguistics that is most concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge, such as the study of language structure (grammar) and meaning (semantic).
Applied linguistic is the branch of linguistic that is most concerned with application of the concepts in everyday life, including language-teaching.
4. Micro linguistic is narrower view. It is concerned internal view of language itself (structure of language systems) without related to other sciences and without related how to apply it in daily life. Some fields of micro linguistic:

a. Phonetics, the study of the physical properties of sounds of human language
b. Phonology, the study of sounds as discrete, abstract elements in the speaker's mind that distinguish meaning
c. Morphology, the study of internal structures of words and how they can be modified
d. Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences
e. Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences
f. Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used (literally, figuratively, or otherwise) in communicative acts
g. Discourse analysis, the analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, or signed)

Macro linguistic is broadest view of language. It is concerned external view of language itself with related to other sciences and how to apply it in daily life. Some fields of micro linguistic:
a. Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors that place a discourse in context.
b. Developmental linguistics, the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of language in childhood.
c. Historical linguistics or Diachronic linguistics, the study of language change.
d. Language geography, the study of the spatial patterns of languages.
e. Evolutionary linguistics, the study of the origin and subsequent development of language.
f. Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and representations underlying language use.
g. Sociolinguistics, the study of social patterns and norms of linguistic variability.
h. Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the area of Speech-Language Pathology.
i. Neurolinguistics, the study of the brain networks that underlie grammar and communication.
j. Biolinguistics, the study of natural as well as human-taught communication systems in animals compared to human language.
k. Computational linguistics, the study of computational implementations of linguistic structures.




 

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